Ma, H.; Nittrouer, J. A.; Wu, B.; Zhang, Y.; Mohrig, D. C.; Lamb, M. P.; Wang, Y.; Fu, X.; Moodie, A. J.; Naito, K.; Parker, G.
Sediment dispersal and deposition creates deltaic landscapes, establishes coastlines, and produces fertile floodplains, all of which serve as critical landforms inhabited by a large proportion of humankind. If poorly managed, sediment loads in these environments can elevate and clog channels, thereby enhancing hazards such as severe flooding. Predictive descriptions of sediment loads, however, are not well constrained, especially for fine-grained (silt and very-fine sand) dispersal systems, which often include river deltas and coastlines. Here, we show efforts to collect and analyze an extensive sediment load database for fine-grained channels, spanning from small flume experiments to large rivers, in order to evaluate the nature of sediment flux. Our analyses determined that sediment transport exhibits two distinct transport phases, separated by a discontinuous transition, whereby sediment flux differs by one to two orders of magnitude. It is determined that the transition responds to the bed material grain size, and we propose a phase diagram based on this metric alone. These findings help elucidate why previous theories of sediment transport at the sand-silt interface, which are typically continuous, are not able to give satisfactory predictions across different scales and environments. Our work serves to help evaluate anthropic influences on rivers, deltas, and coastlines, and can be applied to better constrain sediment flux of paleo-fluvial systems found on Earth and Mars. For example, in situ measurements of sediment flux for the silty-sandy bed of the lower Yellow River, China, validate the aforementioned phase transition behavior, and illustrate that the channel resides near the transition of high to low efficiency transport modes. Recent dam construction and resulting downstream coarsening of the bed via armoring, however, might lead to the unintended consequence of enhancing flood risk by driving the system to a low efficiency transport mode with high
Khorram, Saeed; Ergil, Mustafa
A measure of uncertainties, entropy has been employed in such different applications as coastal engineering probability inferences. Entropy sediment transport integration theories present novel visions in coastal analyses/modeling the application and development of which are still far-reaching. Effort has been made in the present paper to propose a method that needs an entropy-power index for spatio-temporal patterns analyses. Results have shown that the index is suitable for marine/hydrological ecosystem components analyses based on a beach area case study. The method makes use of six Makran Coastal monthly data (1970-2015) and studies variables such as spatio-temporal patterns, LSTR (long-shore sediment transport rate), wind speed, and wave height all of which are time-dependent and play considerable roles in terrestrial coastal investigations; the mentioned variables show meaningful spatio-temporal variability most of the time, but explanation of their combined performance is not easy. Accordingly, the use of an entropy-power index can show considerable signals that facilitate the evaluation of water resources and will provide an insight regarding hydrological parameters’ interactions at scales as large as beach areas. Results have revealed that an STDDPI (entropy based spatio-temporal disorder dynamics power index) can simulate wave, long-shore sediment transport rate, and wind when granulometry, concentration, and flow conditions vary.
Hoitink, T.; Naqshband, S.; McElroy, B. J.
Flow and sediment transport are key processes in the morphodynamics of river dunes. During floods in several rivers (e.g., the Elkhorn, Missouri, Niobrara, and Rio Grande), dunes are observed to grow rapidly as flow strength increases, undergoing an unstable transition regime, after which they are washed out in what is called upper stage plane bed. This morphological evolution of dunes to upper stage plane bed is the strongest bed-form adjustment during non-equilibrium flows and is associated with a significant change in hydraulic roughness and water levels. Detailed experimental investigations, however, have mostly focused on fixed dunes limited to equilibrium flow and bed conditions that are rare in natural channels. Our understanding of the underlying sedimentary processes that result into the washing out of dunes is therefore very limited. In the present study, using the Acoustic Concentration and Velocity Profiler (ACVP), we were able to quantify flow structure and sediment transport distribution over mobile non-equilibrium dunes. Under these non-equilibrium flow conditions average dune heights were decreasing while dune lengths were increasing. Preliminary results suggest that this morphological behaviour is due to a positive phase lag between sediment transport maximum and topographic maximum leading to a larger erosion on the dune stoss side compared to deposition on dune lee side.
Pietroń, Jan; Jarsjö, Jerker
The concentration of heavy metals in rivers is often greater in the sediment load than in the water solution. Overall, heavy metal conveyance with sediment transport is a significant contributor to the global transport of heavy metals. Heavy metals once released to a river system may remain in the deposits of the river from short to very long times, for instance depending on to which extent erosion and deposition can influence the sediment mass stored in the river bed. In general, the mobility of contaminated sediments to downstream water recipients may to large extent be governed by natural sediment transport dynamics during hydrological events, such as flow peaks following heavy rainfalls. The Tuul River (Northern Mongolia) belongs to a Tuul River-Orkhon River-Selenga River- transboundary river system that discharges into Lake Baikal. The river system is largely characterized by its natural hydrological regime with numerous rapid peak flow events of the spring-summer periods. However, recent studies indicate contamination of fine sediment with heavy metals coming from placer gold mining area (Zaamar Goldfield) located along the downstream Tuul River. In this work, the general idea is to create a one-dimensional sediment transport model of the downstream Tuul River, and use field-data supported modeling to investigate natural erosion-deposition rates and the role of peak flows in natural sediment transport at 14 km reach just downstream the gold mining area. The model results show that the sediment load of the finest investigated grain size has a great potential to be eroded from the bed of the studied reach, especially during the main peak flow events. However, the same events are associated with a significant deposition of the finest material. The model results also show different hysteresis behavior of the sediment load rating curves (clockwise and counter-clockwise) during the main peak flow events. These are interpreted as effects of changing in
Smar, D. E.; Hagen, S.; Daranpob, A.; Passeri, D.
An ongoing study in Franklin County, Florida is focused on classifying the mechanisms of sediment transport from the overland areas to eventual deposition in the Apalachicola River and surrounding estuaries. Sediment cores and water column samples were collected at various locations along the Apalachicola River, its tributaries, and distributaries over a two-week period during the wet season. A preliminary particle size distribution analysis of the sediment cores and water column samples demonstrates decreasing particle sizes as the river and wetlands progress toward the ocean. Daily water samples from the mouth of the Apalachicola River and two distributaries reveal fluctuating total suspended solid (TSS) concentrations. To understand these deviations, flow rate and water level at each location is inspected. Because the nearest USGS gage is approximately 16 miles upstream from these sites, investigation of the hydrodynamic influences of sediment transport is conducted by developing a hydrodynamic model simulating river flow and tides in the Apalachicola River and bay system. With spatially accurate flow rates and water levels, an attempt can be made to correlate flow rate with fluctuating TSS concentrations. Precipitation events during the sampling period also support spikes in the TSS concentrations as expected. Assessing sediment transport to the river/bay system will lead to a better understanding of the regression or accretion of the river’s alluvial fan and the marsh platform. High flow periods following extreme rain events (which are expected to intensify under global climate change) transport more sediment downstream, however, the interaction with tidal and sea level effects are still being analyzed. With rising sea levels, it is expected that the alluvial fan will recede and wetland areas may migrate inland gradually transforming existing dry lands such as pine forests into new wetland regions. Future work will include an analysis of the tidal cycle during
Garzanti, Eduardo; Andò, Sergio; Padoan, Marta; Vezzoli, Giovanni; Villa, Igor
The Nile River flows for ~ 6700 km, from Burundi and Rwanda highlands south of the Equator to the Mediterranean Sea at northern subtropical latitudes. It is thus the longest natural laboratory on Earth, a unique setting in which we are carrying out a continuing research project to investigate changes in sediment composition associated with a variety of chemical and physical processes, including weathering in equatorial climate and hydraulic sorting during transport and deposition. Petrographic, mineralogical, chemical, and isotopic fingerprints of sand and mud have been monitored along all Nile branches, from the Kagera and White Nile draining Archean, Paleoproterozoic and Mesoproterozoic basements uplifted along the western branch of the East African rift, to the Blue Nile and Atbara Rivers sourced in Ethiopian volcanic highlands made of Oligocene basalt. Downstream of the Atbara confluence, the Nile receives no significant tributary water and hardly any rainfall across the Sahara. After construction of the Aswan High Dam in 1964, the Nile ceased to be an active conveyor-belt in Egypt, where the mighty river has been tamed to a water canal; transported sediments are thus chiefly reworked from older bed and levee deposits, with minor contributions from widyan sourced in the Red Sea Hills and wind-blown desert sand and dust. Extensive dam construction has determined a dramatic sediment deficit at the mouth, where deltaic cusps are undergoing ravaging erosion. Nile delta sediments are thus recycled under the effect of dominant waves from the northwest, the longest Mediterranean fetch direction. Nile sands, progressively enriched in more stable minerals such as quartz and amphiboles relative to volcanic rock fragments and pyroxene, thus undergo multistep transport by E- and NE-directed longshore currents all along the coast of Egypt and Palestine, and are carried as far as Akko Bay in northern Israel. Nile mud reaches the Iskenderun Gulf in southern Turkey. A full
Florsheim, J.L.; Pellerin, B.A.; Oh, N.H.; Ohara, N.; Bachand, P.A.M.; Bachand, Sandra M.; Bergamaschi, B.A.; Hernes, P.J.; Kavvas, M.L.
The spatial and temporal variability of sediment sources, storage, and transport were investigated in a small agricultural watershed draining the Coast Ranges and Sacramento Valley in central California. Results of field, laboratory, and historical data analysis in the Willow Slough fluvial system document changes that transformed a transport-limited depositional system to an effective erosion and transport system, despite a large sediment supply. These changes were caused by a combination of factors: (i) an increase in transport capacity, and (ii) hydrologic alteration. Alteration of the riparian zone and drainage network pattern during the past ~ 150 years included a twofold increase in straightened channel segments along with a baselevel change from excavation that increased slope, and increased sediment transport capacity by ~ 7%. Hydrologic alteration from irrigation water contributions also increased transport capacity, by extending the period with potential for sediment transport and erosion by ~ 6 months/year. Field measurements document Quaternary Alluvium as a modern source of fine sediment with grain size distributions characterized by 5 to 40% fine material. About 60% of an upland and 30% of a lowland study reach incised into this deposit exhibit bank erosion. During this study, the wet 2006 and relatively dry 2007 water years exhibited a range of total annual suspended sediment load spanning two orders of magnitude: ~ 108,500 kg/km2/year during 2006 and 5,950 kg/km2/year during 2007, only 5% of that during the previous year. Regional implications of this work are illustrated by the potential for a small tributary such as Willow Slough to contribute sediment – whereas large dams limit sediment supply from larger tributaries – to the Sacramento River and San Francisco Bay Delta and Estuary. This work is relevant to lowland agricultural river–floodplain systems globally in efforts to restore aquatic and riparian functions and where water quality
Elias, Edwin P.L.; Hansen, Jeff E.; Barnard, P.L.; Jaffee, B.E.; Schoellhamer, D.H.
San Francisco Bay is one of the largest estuaries along the U.S. West Coast and is linked to the Pacific Ocean through the Golden Gate, a 100 m deep bedrock inlet. A coupled wave, flow and sediment transport model is used to quantify the sediment linkages between San Francisco Bay, the Golden Gate, and the adjacent open coast. Flow and sediment transport processes are investigated using an ensemble average of 24 climatologically derived wave cases and a 24.8 h representative tidal cycle. The model simulations show that within the inlet, flow and sediment transport is tidally dominated and driven by asymmetry of the ebb and flood tides. Peak ebb velocities exceed the peak flood velocities in the narrow Golden Gate channel as a result of flow convergence and acceleration. Persistent flow and sediment gyres at the headland tips are formed that limit sediment transfer from the ebb-tidal delta to the inlet and into the bay. The residual transport pattern in the inlet is dominated by a lateral segregation with a large ebb-dominant sediment transport (and flow) prevailing along the deeper north side of the Golden Gate channel, and smaller flood dominant transports along the shallow southern margin. The seaward edge of the ebb-tidal delta largely corresponds to the seaward extent of strong tidal flows. On the ebb-tidal delta, both waves and tidal forcing govern flow and sediment transport. Wave focusing by the ebb-tidal delta leads to strong patterns of sediment convergence and divergence along the adjacent Ocean Beach.
Harvey, J.W.; Noe, G.B.; Larsen, L.G.; Nowacki, D.J.; McPhillips, L.E.
Flow interactions with aquatic vegetation and effects on sediment transport and nutrient redistribution are uncertain in shallow aquatic ecosystems. Here we quantified sediment transport in the Everglades by progressively increasing flow velocity in a field flume constructed around undisturbed bed sediment and emergent macrophytes. Suspended sediment 100 μm became dominant at higher velocity steps after a threshold shear stress for bed floc entrainment was exceeded. Shedding of vortices that had formed downstream of plant stems also occurred on that velocity step which promoted additional sediment detachment from epiphyton. Modeling determined that the potentially entrainable sediment reservoir, 46 g m−2, was similar to the reservoir of epiphyton (66 g m−2) but smaller than the reservoir of flocculent bed sediment (330 g m−2). All suspended sediment was enriched in phosphorus (by approximately twenty times) compared with bulk sediment on the bed surface and on plant stems, indicating that the most easily entrainable sediment is also the most nutrient rich (and likely the most biologically active).
Lacy, Jessica R.; Gladding, Steve; Brand, Andreas; Collignon, Audric; Stacey, Mark
We investigate the dynamics governing exchange of sediment between estuarine shallows and the channel based on field measurements at eight stations spanning the interface between the channel and the extensive eastern shoals of South San Francisco Bay. The study site is characterized by longitudinally homogeneous bathymetry and a straight channel, with friction more important than the Coriolis forcing. Data were collected for 3 weeks in the winter and 4 weeks in the late summer of 2009, to capture a range of hydrologic and meteorologic conditions. The greatest sediment transport from shallows to channel occurred during a pair of strong, late-summer wind events, with westerly winds exceeding 10 m/s for more than 24 h. A combination of wind-driven barotropic return flow and lateral baroclinic circulation caused the transport. The lateral density gradient was produced by differences in temperature and suspended sediment concentration (SSC). During the wind events, SSC-induced vertical density stratification limited turbulent mixing at slack tides in the shallows, increasing the potential for two-layer exchange. The temperature- and SSC-induced lateral density gradient was comparable in strength to salinity-induced gradients in South Bay produced by seasonal freshwater inflows, but shorter in duration. In the absence of a lateral density gradient, suspended sediment flux at the channel slope was directed towards the shallows, both in winter and during summer sea breeze conditions, indicating the importance of baroclinically driven exchange to supply of sediment from the shallows to the channel in South San Francisco Bay and systems with similar bathymetry.
McGann, Mary; Erikson, Li H.; Wan, Elmira; Powell, Charles; Maddocks, Rosalie F.; Barnard, P.L.; Jaffee, B.E.; Schoellhamer, D.H.
Although conventional sediment parameters (mean grain size, sorting, and skewness) and provenance have typically been used to infer sediment transport pathways, most freshwater, brackish, and marine environments are also characterized by abundant sediment constituents of biological, and possibly anthropogenic and volcanic, origin that can provide additional insight into local sedimentary processes. The biota will be spatially distributed according to its response to environmental parameters such as water temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, organic carbon content, grain size, and intensity of currents and tidal flow, whereas the presence of anthropogenic and volcanic constituents will reflect proximity to source areas and whether they are fluvially- or aerially-transported. Because each of these constituents have a unique environmental signature, they are a more precise proxy for that source area than the conventional sedimentary process indicators. This San Francisco Bay Coastal System study demonstrates that by applying a multi-proxy approach, the primary sites of sediment transport can be identified. Many of these sites are far from where the constituents originated, showing that sediment transport is widespread in the region. Although not often used, identifying and interpreting the distribution of naturally-occurring and allochthonous biologic, anthropogenic, and volcanic sediment constituents is a powerful tool to aid in the investigation of sediment transport pathways in other coastal systems.
Pace, M. N.; Mayes, M. A.; Jardine, P. M.; McKay, L. D.; Yin, X. L.; Mehlhorn, T. L.; Liu, Q.; Gürleyük, H.
Strontium-90 has migrated deep into the unsaturated subsurface beneath leaking storage tanks in the Waste Management Areas (WMA) at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Hanford Reservation. Faster than expected transport of contaminants in the vadose zone is typically attributed to either physical hydrologic processes such as development of preferential flow pathways, or to geochemical processes such as the formation of stable, anionic complexes with organic chelates, e.g., ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). The goal of this paper is to determine whether hydrological processes in the Hanford sediments can influence the geochemistry of the system and hence control transport of Sr 2+ and SrEDTA 2-. The study used batch isotherms, saturated packed column experiments, and an unsaturated transport experiment in an undisturbed core. Isotherms and repacked column experiments suggested that the SrEDTA 2- complex was unstable in the presence of Hanford sediments, resulting in dissociation and transport of Sr 2+ as a divalent cation. A decrease in sorption with increasing solid:solution ratio for Sr 2+ and SrEDTA 2- suggested mineral dissolution resulted in competition for sorption sites and the formation of stable aqueous complexes. This was confirmed by detection of MgEDTA 2-, MnEDTA 2-, PbEDTA 2-, and unidentified Sr and Ca complexes. Displacement of Sr 2+ through a partially-saturated undisturbed core resulted in less retardation and more irreversible sorption than was observed in the saturated repacked columns, and model results suggested a significant reservoir (49%) of immobile water was present during transport through the heterogeneous layered sediments. The undisturbed core was subsequently disassembled along distinct bedding planes and subjected to sequential extractions. Strontium was unequally distributed between carbonates (49%), ion exchange sites (37%), and the oxide (14%) fraction. An inverse relationship between mass wetness and Sr suggested that
Boudet, L.; Sabatier, F.; Radakovitch, O.
The delta of the Rhone River is one of the most important in the Mediterranean Sea. Beach erosion problems along its coasts have developed in recent decades, raising the need for a better understanding of the sediment transport processes at the Rhone mouth and the adjacent beaches. Because field data are very difficult to obtain in such an energetic environment, a high-resolution numerical model (Delft3D) is applied to this area. This model is calibrated by taking into account hydrodynamical and morphological observations. Special attention is given to storm and flood events, which are the major morphological drivers. Therefore, scenarios with different wave and flow conditions are run to estimate the influence of these events on the sediment transport. The analysis of historical hydrological data shows that storms from the southeast represent 70% of the events between 1979 to 2010 and that 20% of them were followed by a flood within a few days. Consequently, specific simulations for such conditions are performed using Delft3D. The model simulates trends in the bedload sediment transport that are consistent with the bedforms observed in the bathymetry data. The total sediment transport at the outlet is only influenced by the river flow, but sediment transport at the mouth-bar depends on an equilibrium between the influence of floods and storms and the succession of these events. A period of 2 or 3 days separating the storm and flood peaks is sufficient to differentiate wave and river flow-induced sediment transport. The waves constrain the total transport on the mouth-bar and shallow mouth-lobe and induce a longshore transfer towards the adjacent beaches. The riverine sediments can be exported seaward only if a flood is energetic enough compared to the storm intensity. Regardless, when a flood is greater than the decadal return period (7800 m3 s-1), the sediment is transported from the outlet across the mouth-bar and is directed offshore.
Su, Ni; Yang, Shouye; Guo, Yulong; Yue, Wei; Wang, Xiaodan; Yin, Ping; Huang, Xiangtong
Although rare earth element (REE) has been widely applied for provenance study and paleoenvironmental reconstruction, its mobility and fractionation during earth surface processes from weathering to sediment deposition remain more clarification. We investigated the REE fractionations during chemical weathering and river sediment transport based on the systematic observations from a granodiorite-weathering profile and Mulanxi River sediments in southeast China. Two chemical phases (leachates and residues) were separated by 1 N HCl leaching and the leachates account for 20-70% of the bulk REE concentration. REEs in the weathering profile have been mobilized and fractionated to different extents during chemical weathering and pedogenesis. Remarkable cerium anomalies (Ce/Ce* = 0.1-10.6) occur during weathering as a result of coprecipitation with Mn (hydro)oxides in the profile, while poor or no Ce anomalies in the river sediments were observed. This contrasting feature sheds new light on the indication of Ce anomaly for redox change. The hydraulic sorting-induced mineral redistribution can further homogenize the weathering and pedogenic alterations and thus weaken the REE fractionations in river sediments. The mineral assemblage is the ultimate control on REE composition, and the Mn-Fe (hydro)oxides and secondary phosphate minerals are the main hosts of acid-leachable REEs while the clay minerals could be important reservoirs for residual REEs. We thus suggest that the widely used REE proxies such as (LREE/HREE)UCC ratio in the residues is reliable for the indication of sediment provenance, while the ratio in the leachates can indicate the total weathering process to some extent.
von Rein, I; Kayler, Z E; Premke, K; Gessler, A
With the projected increase in drought duration and intensity in future, small water bodies, and especially the terrestrial-aquatic interfaces, will be subjected to longer dry periods with desiccation of the sediment. Drought effects on the plant-sediment microorganism carbon continuum may disrupt the tight linkage between plants and microbes which governs sediment carbon and nutrient cycling, thus having a potential negative impact on carbon sequestration of small freshwater ecosystems. However, research on drought effects on the plant-sediment carbon transfer in aquatic ecosystems is scarce. We therefore exposed two emergent aquatic macrophytes, Phragmites australis and Typha latifolia, to a month-long summer drought in a mesocosm experiment. We followed the fate of carbon from leaves to sediment microbial communities with 13 CO 2 pulse labelling and microbial phospholipid-derived fatty acid (PLFA) analysis. We found that drought reduced the total amount of carbon allocated to stem tissues but did not delay the transport. We also observed an increase in accumulation of 13 C-labelled sugars in roots and found a reduced incorporation of 13 C into the PLFAs of sediment microorganisms. Drought induced a switch in plant carbon allocation priorities, where stems received less new assimilates leading to reduced starch reserves whilst roots were prioritised with new assimilates, suggesting their use for osmoregulation. There were indications that the reduced carbon transfer from roots to microorganisms was due to the reduction of microbial activity via direct drought effects rather than to a decrease in root exudation or exudate availability. © 2016 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.
Duan, W.; He, B.; Takara, K.; Luo, P.; Nover, D.; Hu, M.
It is important to understand the mechanisms that control suspended sediment (SS) fate and transport in rivers as high suspended sediment loads have significant impacts on riverine hydroecology. In this study, the watershed model SPARROW (SPAtially Referenced Regression on Watershed Attributes) was applied to estimate the sources and transport of SS in surface waters of the Ishikari River Basin (14 330 km2), the largest watershed on Hokkaido Island, Japan. The final developed SPARROW model has four source variables (developing lands, forest lands, agricultural lands, and stream channels), three landscape delivery variables (slope, soil permeability, and precipitation), two in-stream loss coefficients including small stream (streams with drainage area sediment yield at around 1006.27 kg km-2 yr-1, followed by agricultural-land (234.21 kg km-2 yr-1). Estimation of incremental yields shows that 35.11% comes from agricultural lands, 23.42% from forested lands, 22.91% from developing lands, and 18.56% from stream channels. The results of this study improve our understanding of sediments production and transportation in the Ishikari River Basin in general, which will benefit both the scientific and the management community in safeguarding water resources.
Duan, W. L.; He, B.; Takara, K.; Luo, P. P.; Nover, D.; Hu, M. C.
It is important to understand the mechanisms that control the fate and transport of suspended sediment (SS) in rivers, because high suspended sediment loads have significant impacts on riverine hydroecology. In this study, the SPARROW (SPAtially Referenced Regression on Watershed Attributes) watershed model was applied to estimate the sources and transport of SS in surface waters of the Ishikari River basin (14 330 km2), the largest watershed in Hokkaido, Japan. The final developed SPARROW model has four source variables (developing lands, forest lands, agricultural lands, and stream channels), three landscape delivery variables (slope, soil permeability, and precipitation), two in-stream loss coefficients, including small streams (streams with drainage area sediment yield at around 1006 kg km-2 yr-1, followed by agricultural land (234 kg km-2 yr-1). Estimation of incremental yields shows that 35% comes from agricultural lands, 23% from forested lands, 23% from developing lands, and 19% from stream channels. The results of this study improve our understanding of sediment production and transportation in the Ishikari River basin in general, which will benefit both the scientific and management communities in safeguarding water resources.
Bi, Qilong; Toorman, Erik A.
In this study, the main object is to investigate the performance of a few new physics-based process models by implementation into a numerical model for the simulation of the flow and morphodynamics in the Western Scheldt estuary. In order to deal with the complexity within the research domain, and improve the prediction accuracy, a 2D depth-averaged model has been set up as realistic as possible, i.e. including two-way hydrodynamic-sediment transport coupling, mixed sand-mud sediment transport (bedload transport as well as suspended load in the water column) and a dynamic non-uniform bed composition. A newly developed bottom friction law, based on a generalised mixing-length (GML) theory, is implemented, with which the new bed shear stress closure is constructed as the superposition of the turbulent and the laminar contribution. It allows the simulation of all turbulence conditions (fully developed turbulence, from hydraulic rough to hydraulic smooth, transient and laminar), and the drying and wetting of intertidal flats can now be modelled without specifying an inundation threshold. The benefit is that intertidal morphodynamics can now be modelled with great detail for the first time. Erosion and deposition in these areas can now be estimated with much higher accuracy, as well as their contribution to the overall net fluxes. Furthermore, Krone’s deposition law has been adapted to sand-mud mixtures, and the critical stresses for deposition are computed from suspension capacity theory, instead of being tuned. The model has been calibrated and results show considerable differences in sediment fluxes, compared to a traditional approach and the analysis also reveals that the concentration effects play a very important role. The new bottom friction law with concentration effects can considerably alter the total sediment flux in the estuary not only in terms of magnitude but also in terms of erosion and deposition patterns.
Hu, K.; Chen, Q. J.
Jamaica Bay is located in Brooklyn and Queens, New York on the western end of the south shore of the Long Island land mass. It experienced a conversion of more than 60% of the vegetated salt-marsh islands to intertidal and subtidal mudflats. Hurricanes and nor’easters are among the important driving forces that reshape coastal landscape quickly and affect wetland sustainability. Wetland protection and restoration need a better understanding of hydrodynamics and sediment transport in this area, especially under extreme weather conditions. Hurricane Sandy, which made landfall along east coast on October 30, 2012, provides a critical opportunity for studying the impacts of hurricanes on sedimentation, erosion and morphological changes in Jamaica Bay and salt marsh islands. The Delft3D model suit was applied to model hydrodynamics and sediment transport in Jamaica Bay and salt marsh islands. Three domains were set up for nesting computation. The local domain covering the bay and salt marshes has a resolution of 10 m. The wave module was online coupled with the flow module. Vegetation effects were considered as a large number of rigid cylinders by a sub-module in Delft3D. Parameters in sediment transport and morphological change were carefully chosen and calibrated. Prior- and post-Sandy Surface Elevation Table (SET)/accretion data including mark horizon (short-term) and 137Cs and 210Pb (long-term) at salt marsh islands in Jamaica Bay were used for model validation. Model results indicate that waves played an important role in hurricane-induced morphological change in Jamaica Bay and wetlands. In addition, numerical experiments were carried out to investigate the impacts of hypothetic hurricanes. This study has been supported by the U.S. Geological Survey Hurricane Sandy Disaster Recovery Act Funds.
Baker, M. M.; Lapotre, M. G. A.; Bridges, N. T.; Minitti, M. E.; Newman, C. E.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Vasavada, A. R.; Edgett, K. S.; Lewis, K. W.
Since its landing at Gale crater five years ago, the Curiosity rover has provided us with unparalleled data to study active surface processes on Mars. Repeat imaging campaigns (i.e. “change-detection campaigns”) conducted with the rover’s cameras have allowed us to study Martian atmosphere-surface interactions and characterize wind-driven sediment transport from ground-truth observations. Utilizing the rover’s periodic stops to image identical patches of ground over multiple sols, these change-detection campaigns have revealed sediment motion over a wide range of grain sizes. These results have been corroborated in images taken by the rover’s hand lens imager (MAHLI), which have captured sand transport occurring on the scale of minutes. Of particular interest are images collected during Curiosity’s traverse across the Bagnold Dune Field, the first dune field observed to be active in situ on another planet. Curiosity carried out the first phase of the Bagnold Dunes campaign (between Ls 72º and 109º) along the northern edge of the dune field at the base of Aeolis Mons, where change-detection images showed very limited sediment motion. More recently, a second phase of the campaign was conducted along the southern edge of the dune field between Ls 312º to 345º; here, images captured extensive wind-driven sand motion. Observations from multiple cameras show ripples migrating to the southwest, in agreement with predicted net transport within the dune field. Together with change-detection observations conducted outside of the dune field, the data show that ubiquitous Martian landscapes are seasonally active within Gale crater, with the bulk of the sediment flux occurring during southern summer.